News: Why have countries failed to meet their biodiversity goals?


What's in the news?

       Many of the 24 conservation targets under discussion at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) aim to avoid past mistakes and improve on the world’s last set of conservation goals — the Aichi Biodiversity Targets that expired in 2020.


Key takeaways:

       No single country met all 20 Aichi Targets within its own borders, according to a September 2020 UN assessment.


Aichi Biodiversity Targets:

       The Aichi Targets were adopted during the 2010 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) summit in Nagoya, Japan.



       It included goals such as reducing deforestation by at least half during the coming decade and curbing pollution so that it no longer harmed ecosystems.



       Countries after the adoption of the target were expected to come up with their own national biodiversity strategies that would help in achieving the goals laid out by Aichi.


Progress made in Aichi Biodiversity Targets:

       Some progress was made towards the objective of conserving 17% of all land and inland waters and 10% of the ocean by the end of the decade.

       Six of the targets, including the land and ocean conservation target, were deemed “partially achieved”.


Failure in Attaining Aichi Biodiversity Targets:

       However, most of its targets were not achieved by the world and Aichi was deemed a failure by the United Nations.

       This is because, at a global level, none of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets was met or achieved.


Reasons for the failure of Aichi Biodiversity Targets:

       The targets have vague language and did not hold countries to a specific action.

       Nearly all parties created their own national biodiversity strategies, but many of them were never fully implemented.

       The other reasons include

       lack of finance.

       lack of robust monitoring, planning, reporting and reviewing framework.

       lack of clearly defined metrics.


Further Reference - Kunming Montreal Biodiversity Framework